Page, Sir Francis, a judge whose "reputation for coarseness and brutality (e.g.
Pope, Dunciad, iv. 2730) is hardly warranted by the few reported cases in which
he took part"(1661?-1741).
Palais Royal, in Paris, formerly very magnificent.
Pannonia, roughly equivalent to the modern Hungary.
Pasquin, Anthony, a fifteenth-century Italian tailor, noted for his caustic wit.
Pastor Fido, a pastoral play, composed in 1585 by Guarini on the model of
Patna, massacre of.
Peacock Throne, a gilded and jeweled couch with a canopy, described by a French
jeweler named Tavernier, who saw it in 1665, and possibly the present throne of
the Shah of Persia.
Perceval, Spencer, supported the Tory party, and became its leader in 1809;
assassinated in the Commons Lobby, 1812.
Perwannahs, magisterial documents containing instructions or orders.
Peters, Hugh, a famous Independent divine and chaplain to the Parliamentary
forces, executed in 1660 for his alleged share in the death of Charles 1. He was
an upright and genial man, but somewhat lacking in moderation and taste.
Petit Trianon, a chateau built for Madame du Barry by Louis XV, and afterwards
the favorite resort of Marie Antoinette. In a subsequent edition Macaulay
Phalaris, a tyrant of Agrigentum in Sicily (sixth century).
Pigot, Governor of Madras when Clive was in Bengal, and also, as Lord Pigot, in
the time of Warren Hastings.
Pinto, Fernandez Mendez, a Portuguese traveler (d. 1583), who visited the Far
East and possibly landed in the Gulf of Pekin.
Politian, one of the early scholars of the Renaissance; patronized by Lorenzo de
Pontiff, that inglorious, Peter Marone (Celestine V.), who was tricked into
abdicating the papacy for Boniface VIII, and died in prison.
Porto Novo and Pollilore, where Coote defeated Hyder Ali in July and August
1781, and so finished a long campaign in the Carnatic.
Powis, Lord, Edward Clive, created Earl of Powis in 1804.
Powle, a leading Politician and lawyer in the events connected with the
accession Of William III.
Prynne, William, a Puritan, who attacked the stage and the Queen's virtue, and
suffered by order of the Star Chamber. In late life he changed his opinions, was
imprisoned by Cromwell, and favored by Charles II.
Pyrenees, treaty of the, closed the war between France and Spain (1660), which
had continued twelve years after the Peace of Westphalia was signed. For the
other treaties mentioned here see the essay on "The War of the Spanish
Succession," in vol. ii.
Rapin, a Huguenot who joined the army of William of Orange, and wrote a Histoire
d'Angleterre which surpassed all its predecessors.
Ricimer, a fifth-century Swabian soldier who deposed the Emperor Avitus, and
then set up and deposed Majorian, Libius Severus and Anthemius, and finally set
Rix dollar, a Scandinavian coin worth between three and four shillings.
Roe, Sir Thomas, an English traveler who, in 1615, went on an embassy to
Jehangir at Agra.
Rohilcund, north-west of Oude.
Rohillas, Mussulman mountaineers inhabiting Rohilcund (q.v.).
Russell, Lord William, the Hampden of the Restoration period. Fought hard for
the exclusion of James II. from the crown; unjustly executed for alleged share
in the "Rye House Plot" (1639-83). Algernon Sydney (1621-83) was a fellow-worker
Sacheverell, Henry, a famous divine of Queen Anne's reign, who was impeached by
the Whigs for forwardly preaching the doctrine of non-resistance.
Sackville, Lord George, the general commanding the British cavalry at Minden.
Nervousness led to his disobeying a critical order to charge, which would have
completed the French rout, and he was court-martialled and degraded.
Saint Cecilia, Mrs. Sheridan, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in this character
because of her love of, and skill in, music.
Salmacius, the Latin name of Claude de Saumaise an eminent French scholar and
linguist (1588-1653), whose Defense of Charles 1. provoked Milton's crushing
reply, Defensio Pro populo Anglicano
Sandys, Samuel, opposed Sir R. Walpole, on whose retirement he became Chancellor
of the Exchequer, and afterwards a peer.
Sattara, a fortified town c. one hundred miles southeast from Bombay.
Saxe, the foremost French general in the War of the Austrian Succession
Scaligers;, Julius Caesar S., a learned Italian writer and classical scholar
(1484-1558) and his son Joseph Justus S., who lived in France and was also an
Schedules A and B. In the Reform Act Of 1832 Schedule A comprised those boroughs
which were no longer to be represented, B those which were to send one member
instead of two.
Scroggs, the infamous Chief-Justice of the King's Bench in the reign of Charles
II., impeached in 680, and pensioned by Charles.
Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1758 to 1768.
Seigneur Oreste and Madame Andromaque. See Racine's Andromaque.
Settle, Elkanah. See Flecknoe and Settle.
Sidney, Algernon, condemned and executed on scanty and illegal evidence on a
charge of implication in the Rye House Plot of 1683.
Somers, President of the Council (1708-10) a great Whig leader (he had defended
the Seven Bishops) and patron of literature (1650-1716).
Spinola, Spanish marquis and general who served his country with all his genius
and fortune for naught (1571-1630).
Sporus, a favorite of Nero. Owing to his resemblance to that emperor's wife he
was, after her death, dressed as a woman, and went through a marriage ceremony
Stafford, Lord, executed in 1680, on a false charge of complicity in Oates's
Stanley, Mr., fourth Earl of Derby, the "Rupert of Debate."
Stella, Esther Johnson, the daughter of one of Lady Giffard's friends.
St. Martin's Church, the site of the present G. P. 0., formerly a monastery,
church, and "sanctuary."
Sudbury and Old Sarum, rotten boroughs, the one in Suffolk disfranchised in
1844, the other near Salisbury in 1832.
Sudder Courts, courts of criminal and civil jurisdiction which, in Macaulay's
day, existed alongside the Supreme Court, but which, since 1858, have with the
Supreme Court, been merged in the "High Courts."
Sunnuds, certificates of possession.
Surajah Dowlah, better Suraj-ud-daulah.
Swan River, in the S.W. of Australia, to which country the name of New Holland
was at first given.
Switzer, that brave, Ulrich Zwingli, the Swiss reformer, who fell at Cappel in
Talleyrand, French diplomatist (1754-1831), rendered good service to the
Revolution, was influential under Buonaparte and Louis Philippe's ambassador to
Talma, Francis Joseph, a famous French actor of tragic parts, who passed part of
his life in England (1763-1826).
Talus, Sir Artegal's iron man, who in Spenser's Faery Queen, Book v., represents
the executive power of State Justice.
Tamerlane, the Tartar who invaded India in 1398, and whose descendant, Baber,
founded the Mogul dynasty.
Tanjore, a district of Madras, noted for its fertility; ceded to the East India
Company by the Marathas in 1799. The town of Tanjore is about 300 miles south
Temple, Lord Pitt's brother-in-law. Cf. Macaulay's severe description of him in
the second "Essay on Chatham." (vol. v. of this edition).
Theodosius, emperor of the East 378-395, and for a short time of the West also.
He partly checked the Goths' advance.
Theramenes, Athenian philosopher and general (third century B.C.), unjustly
accused and condemned to drink hemlock.
Theseus, the, one of the most perfect statues in the "Elgin marbles," of the
Thurtell, John, a notorious boxer and gambler (b. 1794), who was hanged at
Hertford on January 9th, 1824, for the brutal murder of William Weare, one of
Thirty-Ninth, i.e. the Dorsets.
Thyrsis, a herdsman in the Idylls of Theocritus; similarly a shepherd in
Virgil's Eclogues; hence a rustic or shepherd.
Timoleon, the Corinthian who expelled the tyrants from the Greek cities of
Sicily (415-337 B.C.).
Tindal, Nicholas, clergyman and miscellaneous author (1687-1774).
Topehall, Smollett's drunken fox-hunter in Roderick Random.
Torso, lit. "trunk," a statue which has lost its head and members.
Torstenson, Bernard, pupil of Gustavus Adolphus, and General-in-Chief of the
Swedish army from 1641. He carried the Thirty Years' War into the heart of
Trapbois, the usurer in Scott's Fortunes of Nigel ch. xvii.-xxv.
Trissotin, a literary fop in Moliere's Les Femmes Savantes.
Turcaret, the title-character in one of Le Sage's comedies.
Turgot, the French statesman (1727-81) who for two years managed the national
finances under Louis XVI., and whose reforms, had they not been thwarted by the
nobility and the king's indecision, would have considerably mitigated the
violence of the Revolution.
Turk's Head. The most famous coffeehouse of this name was in the Strand, and was
one of Johnson's frequent resorts.
Ugolino See Dante's Inferno, xxxii., xxxiii.,
Vansittart, was governor of Bengal in the interval between Clive's first and
Vattel, the great jurist whose Droit des Gens, a work on Natural Law and its
relation to International Law, appeared in 1758.
Vellore, west of Arcot.
Verres, the Roman governor of Sicily (73-77 B.C.), for plundering which island
he was brought to trial and prosecuted by Cicero.
Virgil's foot race. In Aeneid v. 325 ff it is told how Nisus, who was leading,
tripped Salius, his second, that his, friend Euryalus might gain the prize.
Waldegrave, Lord, Governor to George III. before the latter's accession; married
Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland, the ablest commander on the Catholic side in the
Thirty Years' War
Warburg, like Minden 1759, a victory gained by Ferdinand of Brunswick over the
Watson, Admiral, made no protest against his name being signed, and claimed his
share of the profits.
Western, Mrs. See Fielding's Tom Jones.
Whithed, Mr. W., Poet-laureate from 1757 to 1785; author of the School for
Wild, Jonathan, a detective who turned villain and was executed for burglary in
1725; the hero of one of Fielding s stories.
Williams, Sir Charles Hanbury, Ambassador to Berlin (1746-49), His satires
against Walpole's opponents are easy and humorous (d. 1759).
Winnington. In turn Lord of the Admiralty, Lord of the Treasury, And Paymaster
of the Forces. He had infinitely more wit than principle.
Wood's patent the permission granted to Wood of Wolverhampton to mint copper
coin for Ireland, which called forth Swift's Drapier Letters.
Yorke, Attorney-General; Earl of Hardwicke (q.v.).
Zincke and Petitot, eighteenth and seventeenth century enamel painters who came
to England from the Continent.
Critical and Historical Essays, Volume I
Critical And Historical Essays, Volume I, Thomas Babbington Macaulay,