Greriah, c. seventy miles south from Bombay.
Ghizni, in Afghanistan, taken by Sir John Keane in 1839.
Gifford, John, the pseudonym of John Richards Green, a voluminous Tory
Giudecca. In the ninth and lowest circle of the Inferno, the place of those who
betray their benefactors,
Glover, a London merchant who wrote some poetry, including Admiral Hosier's
Godfrey, Sir Edmund, this Protestant magistrate who took Titus Oates's
depositions and was next morning found murdered near Primrose Hill.
Godolphin, Lord of the Treasury under Charles II., James II., and William III.
Prime Minister 1702-10 when Harley ousted him (d. 1712)
Gooti, north from Mysore in the Bellary district, 589
Goree, near Cape Verde, west coast of Africa, Gaudaloupe, is in West Indies;
Ticonderaga and Niagara, frontier forts in Canada.
Gowries, the, Alexander Ruthven and his brother, the Earl of Gowrie, who were
killed in a scuffle during the visit of King James to their house in Perth (Aug.
Grammont, a French count whose Memoirs give a vivid picture of life at Charles
Grandison, Sir Charles . . . Miss Byron, the title character (and his lady-love)
of one of Richardson's novels.
Granicus, Rocroi, Narva, won respectively by Alexander (aged 22) against the
Persians, by Conde (aged 22) against the Spaniards, and by Charles XII. (aged
18) against the Russians.
Great Captain, the, Gonzalvo Hernandez di Cordova, who drove the Moors from
Granada and the French from Italy (d. 1515).
Guarini, (see Pastor Fido).
Guicciardini, Florentian statesman and historian; disciple of Macchiavelli
secured the restoration of the Medici, (1485-1540).
Guizot and Villemain, in 1829 upheld liberal opinions against Charles X., in
1844 took the part of monarchy and Louis Philippe. Genonde and Jaquelin made the
Hafiz and Ferdusi, famous Persian poets: the former flourished in the eleventh,
the latter in the thirteenth century.
Hamilton, Count, friend of James II. and author of the Memoirs of the Count de
Grammont, the best picture of the English court of the Restoration (1646-1720)
Hamilton's Bawn, a tumble-down house in the north of Ireland which inspired
Swift to write an amusing Poem.
Hamilton, Gerard, M.P. for Petersfield, a man of somewhat despicable character.
The nickname was "Single-speech Hamilton."
Hammond, Henry, Rector of Penshurst in Kent, and commentator on the New
Testament, the Psalms, etc.
Hardwicke, Lord, the Lord Chancellor (1737-56), whose Marriage Act (1753) put an
end to Fleet marriages.
Harte, Walter, poet, historian, and tutor to Lord Chesterfield's son (1709-74).
Hayley and Seward, inferior authors who were at one time very popular.
Hebert, Jacques Rene, editor of the violent revolutionary organ Pere Duchesne;
for opposing his colleagues he was arrested and guillotined (1756-94).
Heliogabalus, made emperor of Rome by the army in 218; ruled moderately at
first, but soon abandoned himself to excesses of all kinds, and was
Helvetius, a French philosopher of the materialist school (1715-71).
Henry the Fourth, the famous French king, "Henry of Navarre" (?1589-1610).
Hildebrand, Pope Gregory VII., who waged war against the vices of society and
the imperial tyranny over the Church.
Hilpa and Shalum, Chinese antediluvians (see Spectator, vol. viii.). Hilpa was a
princess and Shalum her lover.
Hoadley, Benjamin, a prelate and keen controversialist on the side of civil and
religious liberty (1676-1761).
Holkar, a Mahratta chief whose headquarters were at Indore.
Hosein, the son of Ali Hosein's mother was Fatima, the favorite daughter of
Houghton, Sir R. Walpole's Norfolk seat.
Hunt, Mr., a well-to-do Wiltshire farmer, who after many attempts entered
Parliament in 1832.
Huntingdon, William, the S.S.="Sinner Save"; Huntingdon was one of those
religious impostors who professed to be the recipient of divine visions and
Hydaspes, or Hytaspes, the Greek name for the river Jhelam in the Punjab.
Hyphasis, the Greek name for the river Beds in the Punjab.
Ildefonso, St., a village in Old Castile containing a Spanish royal residence
built by Philip V. on the model of Versailles.
Jacobins, those holding extreme democratic principles. The name is derived from
an extreme Party of French Revolutionists who used to meet in the ball of the
Jaghires, landed estates.
Jauts, a fighting Hindu race inhabiting the North-West Provinces.
Jefferson, Thomas, an American statesman, who took a prominent part in struggle
for independence, and became President, 1801 to 1807.
Jenkinson, one of Bute's supporters, afterwards Earl of Liverpool.
Jomini, a celebrated Swiss military writer, who served in the French army as
aide-de-camp to Marshal Ney (1779-1869).
Monsieur Jourdain, the honest but uneducated tradesman of Moliere's Le Bourgeois
Gentilhomme, whose sudden wealth lands him in absurd attempts at aristocracy.
Justices in Eyre, i.e. in itinere, on circuit. In 1284 such were superseded by
judges of assize.
Klopstock, author of the German epic Messiah, and one of the pioneers of modern
German literature (1724-1803).
Knight of Malta, a play by Fletcher, Massinger, and another, produced before
Knipperdoling, one of the leading German Anabaptists, stadtholder of Munster,
1534-35, beheaded there in Jan. 1536.
Lally, Baron de Tollendal, a distinguished French general in India who, however,
could not work harmoniously with his brother officers or with his native troops,
and was defeated by Eyre Coote at Wandewash in January 1760. He was imprisoned
in the Bastille and executed (1766) on a charge of betraying French interests.
Las Casas, a Catholic bishop who labored among the aborigines of South America,
interposing himself between them and the cruelty of the Spaniards. Clarkson
(ib.) was Wilberforce's fellow-worker in the abolition of slavery.
Latitudinarians, the school of Cudworth and Henry More (end of seventeenth
century), who sought to affiliate the dogmas of the Church to a rational
Law Mr., afterwards Edward (first) Lord Ellenborough.
Lee, Nathaniel, a minor play-writer (1653-92).
Legge, son of the Earl of Dartmouth. Lord Of the Admiralty 1746, of the Treasury
1747, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1754 (1708-64).
Lennox, Charlotte, friend of Johnson and Richardson, wrote The Female Don
Quixote and Shakespeare Illustrated.
Lenthal, Speaker, who presided at the trial of Charles I.
Leo, tenth pope (1513-21) of the name, Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the
Magnificent, and patron of art, science, and letters.
Lingard, Dr. Job., a Roman Catholic priest who wrote a history of England to the
Accession of William and Mary (d. 1851).
Locusta, a famous female poisoner employed by Agrippina and Nero.
Lothario, a loose character in Rowe's tragedy of The Fair Penitent.
Lucan, the Roman epic Poet whose Pharsalia describes the struggle between Caesar
and Pompey and breathes freedom throughout.
Ludlow, Edmund, a member of the Court that condemned Charles I. An ardent
republican, he went into exile when Cromwell was appointed Protector.
Mackenzie, Henry, author of The Man of Feeling and other sentimental writings.
Maccaroni, an eighteenth-century term for a dandy or fop.
Maecenas, patron of literature in the Augustan age of Rome. Virgil and Horace
were largely favored by him,
Malebolge, i.e. the place of darkness and horror--the eighth Of the ten circles
or pits in Dante's Inferno, and the abode of barterers, hypocrites, evil
Malwa, about 100 miles east from Baroda and nearly 350 miles north-cast from
Marat, Jean Paul, a fanatical democrat whose one fixed idea was wholesale
slaughter of the aristocracy; assassinated by Charlotte Corday (1743-93).
Mariendal, in Germany. Turenne's defeat here was an incident in the Thirty
Marlborough, Nelson, Wellington, the first was made Prince of Mindelheim by
Emperor Joseph I, the second Duke of Bronte by Ferdinand IV., the third Duke of
Vittoria by Ferdinand VII.
Marli, a forest and village ten miles west from Paris, seat of a royal (now
Marten, Henry, one of the most extreme and most conspicuous members of the
Parliamentary Party. Charles I insulted him in public and ordered him to be
turned out of Hyde Park (1602-80). The Marten mentioned on p.4 as guilty of
judicial misfeasance was his father (1562?-41).
Mason, William, friend and biographer of Gray; wrote Caractacus and some odes
Mathias, a noted Anabaptist who, with John of Leyden, committed great excesses
in the endeavor to set up a Kingdom of Mount Zion in Munster, Westphalia (1535).
Maurice, Elector of Saxony (1521-23) and leader of the Protestants of Germany
against the Emperor Charles V.
Mayor of the Palace, the chief minister of the Kings of France between 638 and
Mayor of the Palace, the name given to the comptroller of the household of the
Frankish kings. By successive encroachments these officials became at length
more powerful than the monarchs, whom they finally ousted.
Mazarin(e) Cardinal, chief minister of France during the first eighteen years of
Louis XIV.'s reign,
Memmius, Roman Governor of Bithynia, distinguished for his rhetorical and
literary gifts, 270
Merovingian line, a dynasty of Frankish kings in the sixth and seventh centuries
A.D. They were gradually superseded in power by their "Mayors of the Palace,"
and were succeeded by the Carolingians.
Middleton, Conyers, a Cambridge theologian who had some controversy with
Bentley; distinguished for his "absolutely plain style" of writing (1683-50).
Miguel, Don, King of Portugal, whose usurpation of the throne, refusal to marry
Maria, daughter of Don Pedro of Brazil, and general conduct of affairs, led to a
civil war, as a result of which he had to withdraw to Italy (1802-66).
Mississippi Scheme, a plan for reducing the French National Debt, similar in
folly and in downfall to the South Sea Bubble.
Mite, Sir Matthew (see Foote's comedy, The Nabob).
Montague, Charles, Earl of Halifax, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1694; First Lord
of Treasury 1697; impeached by the Tories for peculation and acquitted; Prime
Minister 1714; reformed the currency.
Montezuma and Guatemozin, two of the native rulers of Mexico prior to its
conquest by Cortez in 1519.
Montezuma, Emperor of Mexico, seized by Cortez in 1519.
Moro, the, a strong fort at the entrance to the harbor of Havana, taken after a
hard struggle by the English under Admiral Sir George Pocock and General the
Earl of Albemarle in July 1762.
Moore, Dr., father of Sir John Moore, European traveler, and author of the novel
Moorish Envoy, Algerine in Humphrey Clinker.
Mountain of Light, the Koh-i-noor, which after many adventures is now one of the
English crown jewels.
Mucius, a Roman, who, when condemned to the stake, thrust his right hand
unflinchingly into a fire lit for a sacrifice. He was spared and given the name
Scaevola, i. e. left-handed.
Murray, orator; afterwards Earl of Mansfield, and Lord Chief Justice (1705-93).
Napier, Colonel, served under Sir John Moore. Like Southey he wrote a History of
the Peninsular War.
Nimeguen, treaty of; by this it was agreed that France should restore all her
Dutch conquests, but should keep the Spanish conquest of Franche-Comte, a clause
which naturally incensed the Emperor and the King of Spain.
Nollekens, Joseph, the eminent English sculptor, and friend of George III.
Nuzzurs, presents to persons in authority.
Oates, Bedloe, Dangerfield, in 1678 pretended to have discovered a "Popish Plot"
which aimed at overthrowing the King and Protestantism.
Odoacer, a Hun, who became emperor in 476 and was assassinated by his colleague,
Theodoric (ib.) the Ostrogoth in 493.
O'Meara, Barry Edward, Napoleon's physician in St. Helena, and author of A Voice
from St. Helena; or, Napoleon in Exile.
Onomasticon, a Greek dictionary of antiquities, in ten books, arranged according
Onslow, Arthur, Speaker of the House of Commons from 1728 to 1761.
Oromasdes and Arimanes, Ormuzd and Ahriman, the embodiments of the principles of
good and evil respectively, in the Zoroastrian religion.
Oxenstiern, Chancellor to Gustavus Adolphus and the director of the negotiations
which led to the Peace of Westphalia and the close of the Thirty Years' War.
Critical and Historical Essays, Volume I
Critical And Historical Essays, Volume I, Thomas Babbington Macaulay,